Sometimes called sunspots, liver spots, freckles or solar lentigos. They appear randomly to face, neck and back of hand (areas where sun exposure is greatest) and tend to be patchy and scattered. May be associated with other signs of photodamage such as textural changes to the skin including lines or wrinkles. It is directly linked to sun exposure.
This is a chronic, acquired, pigmentary skin disorder characterised by symmetrical, brown pigmentation that usually affects the face. The majority of cases are seen in women and can result in considerable social and emotional stress to the sufferer. It usually develops between the age of 20-40 years, and is more common in darker skin types. There are a number of recgonised triggers including sun exposure, pregnancy, hormonal treatments (combined oral contraceptive pills, intrauterine devices, implants), certain medications, and an underactive thyroid gland.
Melasma can be recurrent and refractory which makes it difficult to treat. General measures should include rigorous, high factor, broad-spectrum sun protection throughout the year (SPF50+) and avoidance of hormonal contraception, if possible. There are a large number of topical treatments available which aim to prevent new pigment formation e.g. hydroquinone, azelaic acid, kojic acid. Regular chemical peels can also be used to remove pigment in the upper layers of the skin. Fractional laser is another option and can be very effective, there may well be some post inflammatory hyperpigmentation initially but once that subsides, results are generally very good.
These are pigmentary changes due to excess melanin production usually following inflammation from trauma and/or damage. It may result from eczema, psoriasis, severe acne or just a single spot and can even occur after some treatments. It is considered a temporary condition but can last anywhere up to 9 or 12 months in stubborn cases. It can be treated chemically, medically or left alone to resolve naturally. A bespoke skincare regimen specifically tailored to your skin type can certainly improve matters.
This is a common noncancerous skin growth. It’s neither harmful nor contagious. People tend to get more of them as they get older. They are usually brown, black or light tan lesions. The growths look waxy, scaly and slightly raised and usually appear on the head, neck, chest or back.